Together, biotic and abiotic factors are the basic components of an ecosystem.
Road refinement and highway development projects in India have chiefly amplified the quality of existing roads and have strengthened linkage between cardinal economic centres.
The construction of new highways is the quintessential public sector investment, by which government attempts to encourage monetary growth in rural as well as in urban areas1.
An effective, smoothly operating transportation infrastructure, as highway network is a prioritized concern for society and is a chief component of transportation system at the National, State and local level, thus, highway projects are generally undertaken to ameliorate the efficient connectivity, financial and social welfare of the personages.
From an ecological perspective, development inevitably causes damage to the natural assets of the environment, to a greater or lesser How abiotic factors affect the biota. The building of highways leads to direct destruction and removal of existing ecosystems, and the reconfiguration of local landforms.
Moreover, expansion of roads has diverse ecological effects on the topography which is signified by both abiotic and biotic components of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems 2, 3. The construction activities acts as an important source of particulate matter into the atmosphere and causes significant impact on the air quality.
These activities have also been identified as a major source of pollutants to natural water bodies such as rivers, lakes and streams5.
Pollutants emitting from various activities like soil erosion, use of fossil fuels, paint, solvents, cleaners, use of harmful chemicals, construction debris and dirt are added to adjacent water bodies through both direct and indirect discharges which leads to physical, chemical and biological degradation of water quality6,7.
The roadside soil and residential area have been polluted seriously due to an increasing flow of motor vehicles along highways8. Whereas, pollution from heavy metals f mainly coming from automobile is considered as a serious environmental issue 9.
Dust and other air pollutants from various construction activities impact greatly the health and quality of life of people living and working close to highways and proximity near major roadways has also been linked to increased risk of respiratory complications, cardiovascular disease, and other adverse health effects Mortality due to pulmonary diseases and chronic obstruction has also been observed among workers at construction sites Modification in the land use pattern in the areas that receive greater connectivity due to the highway will lead to changes in the structure of settlement, location of industries, trading and other services.
This would illuminate refinement in the design of economic activities, income generation, price inflation and employment conditions prevailing in the concerned region.
A new land use pattern may in turn wheedle greater accessibility to job markets, health and educational facilities etc; in turn will magnetize funds for the development of feeder roads, power distribution networks, telecommunication facilities and other modes of connectivity.
Hence, leads to changes in the echelon of well-being and human development, through their impact on consumption level, educational attainment, health status, etc. Thus, it requires the identification, understanding and alleviation of the ecological costs of growth without forsaking their benefits.
Therefore, highway development and operations should be planned carefully by safeguarding natural resources, keeping in mind the social and environmental impacts and how to minimal these adverse effects.
It is one of the tools that were employed during the authorisation process to provide decision-makers useful information for taking a logical decision The main motive of EIA is to provide information to the decision makers and public about the environmental implications of the proposed project activity before decisions are made.
Besides providing information, it also suggests measures for preventing or reducing those impacts and mitigation plans. Overall EIA offers a systematic process of examination, analysis and assessment of planned activities with a view to ensuring environmentally sound and sustainable development However, roads influence the abiotic components of terrain including other array of factors such as, the hydrology, the mechanics of sediment and debris transport, water and air chemistry, microclimate and levels of noise, wind, and light adjacent to roadsides.
Thus the extent and intensity of the consequences vary with the position of the road relative to patterns of slope, prevailing winds and surrounding land cover Review and discussion about effects of Highway Expansion on Ecosystem Air quality Air pollution is one of the most often recognized environmental repercussions of roads.
Toxic chemicals associated with air borne particulates cause diseases and increased mortality in humans, and indeed, this aspect of transportation has been the focus of intense scrutiny by researchers, regulators and lawmakers for several decades.
Air pollution is widely considered to be the dominant environmental result of road related transportation.
Air pollutants also enter aquatic systems by adding metals and hydrocarbons to water bodies from atmospheric sources However, the broader ecological effects of chemical pollution due to road related transportation has been less well-studied, although it is clear that toxins enter and persist in the environment and interact with biota.
The impacts of road widening projects vary with the intensity of construction works involved, various operational stages and the importance attached to the impacted environmental attribute.
|The marine environment||First draft prepared by Dr H.|
The widening of NH-5 from existing two lanes to four lanes showed no significant adverse impacts on the environment but however, the temporary impacts on air quality, water quality, soil quality, noise levels, flora and socio-economic environment of the project area were predicted To study the adverse effects of project over humans, flora and fauna and environment; EIA of Road from Ujjain to Jaora was carried which showed the effect of expansion on various environmental factors as air, water and soil.
Even the local air quality deteriorated in road widening scheme in South London during and after the completion of the project Few studies have considered the air quality impacts of new road construction and its subsequent operation.
The available studies are limited for the construction of urban road tunnels and are thus not directly applicable to most urban road schemes21,Examples of biotic factors include any animals, plants, trees, grass, bacteria, moss, or molds that you might find in an ecosystem.
In general, biotic factors are the living components of an ecosystem and are sorted into three groups: producers or autotrophs, consumers or heterotrophs, and decomposers or detritivores. Abiotic examples. What is Biotic? - Definition, Factors & Examples.
Both biotic and abiotic factors affect the carrying capacity of an ecosystem. Just picture the difference between a desert and a tropical rain. Abiotic Factors Influencing the Abundance and Distribution of Marsh Marigolds Along Carp Creek Larissa Hotra, Ellen Kolasky and Jenna Voss but the other tested abiotic factors did not significantly influence marsh marigold particles governs the quality and quantity of nutrients provided for the local biota for.
In. The easiest and most widely used system for classifying soil organisms is by using body size and dividing them into three main groups: macrobiota, mesobiota and microbiota (Wallwork, ; Swift, Heal and Anderson, ).
Check to Show All Sections: Click Blue Section Head to Show/Hide Details: Jump to Section. Get an answer for 'How do biotic and abiotic factors relate to each other?' and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes How do biotic and abiotic factors affect the.